This is a living document and will function as a respository featuring the research for the Silk, Leather & Electronics series. The series explores the history and continued presence of Afro-descent communities from the Black Indian Ocean and maps relationships between the Arab world, South Asian and the Swahili coast of East Africa. The geographic location of the Indian Ocean contains the history of trade, that includes enslaved people, gold, spices, and many other cultural aspects that continue to be present in the lives of its people and diasporas.
The following list pulls from the Dr. Neelima Jeychandran's African Heritage in India Archive's Bibliography & Dr. Sylviane Anna Diouf's The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean World Online Archive and organizes them through regions and themes that highlight the crossover of conditions of enslavement and exchange of goods.
Particular attention is paid to:
- Rituals that tie the spiritual energy of African-descent peoples across the Indian ocean.
- Clothmaking as a method of grounding.
The lives of womxn to bridge their hierachic role as domestic workers as part of the Indian ocean slave trade and their contemporary manifestation as part of the caste and Kafala system.
- Zamani Project: Resource for documented sites as tied to Indian Ocean trade, particular ports such as Kilwa, Shela Mosque, Songo Mnara, Saint Sebastian Fortress, Gondar, Djingareyber Mosque & Kua Ruins. ,
- Diouf, Sylviane Anna. The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean World Digital Archive
- Neelima Jeychandran's. African Heritage in India Archive
- Freedom is Mine Youtube, particularly videos on Afro-Pakistanis, Afro-Indians, Afro-Turks, Afro-Iran, Afro-Yemen and Afro-Sri-Lankans.
- Catlin-Jairazbhoy, Amy, and Nazir Ali Jairazbhoy. From Africa to India: Sidi Music in the Indian Ocean Diaspora. 2003.
- Collinet, George and Sheila Walker. Slave Routes: A Global Vision. UNESCO Slave Route Project. 2010.
- Courtney, Andrew and Emily Perry. African Palestinian: Ali Jiddah. 2005.
- Mirzai, Behnaz A. Afro-Iranian Lives. 2007.
- Shroff, Beheroze. "We're Indian and African": Voices of the Sidis. 2005.
- Shroff, Beheroze. "Ancestral Links": Voices of the Sidis. 2005.
- Shroff, Beheroze. "The Tradition of the Fakirs": Voices of the Sidis. 2005.
indian ocean reading list -- as mapping economic territories
- Ajam Media Collective. Ajam Podcast #17: Framing the Indian Ocean , 2019
- Columbia Univerisity, Bombay and Indian Ocean Urbanisms, 2019
- Hall, Richard Seymour. Empires of the Monsoon: A History of the Indian Ocean and Its Invaders , Harpe Collins Publisher, 1996
- Chaudhru, K. N. Trade and civilisation in the Indian Ocean : an economic history from the rise of Islam to 1750. Cambridge Cambridgeshire, New York : Cambridge University Press, 1985
- Chandra, Satish. The Indian Ocean : explorations in history, commerce, and politics. New Delhi ; Newbury Park Calif. ; Sage Publications; 1987
- Ghosh, Lipi. Eastern Indian Ocean : historical links to contemporary convergences. Newcastle upon Tyne : Cambridge Scholars Pub.; 2011
indian ocean -- sailors and merchants
- Mahajan, Nidhi. A Dhow’s Voyage: Sailors and Saints Across the Indian Ocean, 2019
- Bishara, Fahad Ahmad, A Sea of Debt: Law and Economic Life in the Western Indian Ocean, 1780-1950, Cambridge University Press, 2017
- Das Gupta, Ashin. Merchants of maritime India, 1500-1800. Aldershot, Hampshire, Great Britain : Variorum ; Brookfield, Vt., USA : Ashgate Publishing; 1994
- Risso, Patricia. Merchants and faith : Muslim commerce and culture in the Indian Ocean. Boulder, Colo. : Westview Press, 1995
- Sheriff, Abdul. Dhow Cultures of the Indian Ocean: Cosmopolitanism, Commerce and Islam. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.
- Allen, Richard B. 2015. European Slave Trading in the Indian Ocean, 1500–1850. Ohio University Press.
- Alpers, Edward A. 1975. Ivory and Slaves: Changing Pattern of International Trade in East Central Africa to the Later Nineteenth Century. University of California Press.
- Alpers, Edward A. “The African Diaspora in the Northwestern Indian Ocean: Reconsideration of an Old Problem, New Directions for Research.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 17 (2): 62-81. 1997.
- Alpers, Edward A. “Recollecting Africa: Diasporic Memory in the Indian Ocean World.” African Studies Review 43, no. 1: 83-90. 2000.
- Alpers, Edward A. The Indian Ocean in world history, New Oxford world history. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press. 2014.
the indian ocean slave trade
- Diouf, Sylviane Anna. Servants of Allah: African Muslims enslaved in the Americas, New York University Press, 1998
- UC Davis. Indian Ocean Worlds Courses.
- Clarence-Smith, William, ed. Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century. London: Frank Cass, 1989.
- Islam and the Abolition of Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
- Mirzai, Behnaz A., Ismael Musah Montana, and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds. Slavery, Islam, and Diaspora. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2009.
- Pipes, Daniel. Slave Soldiers and Islam: The Genesis of a Military System. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981.
- Segal, Ronald. Islam's Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2001.
- Alpers, Edward A., Gwyn Campbell, and Michael Salman. Resisting Bondage in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia. Routledge. 2007.
- Clarence-Smith, William Gervase. The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century. Routledge. 2013.
on the role of womxn
Womxn were part of the Indian ocean slave trade as domestic servants and slaves. The historic employment of womxn were part of the Indian ocean slave trade as domestic servants that connects their present heirachic placement as maids and servants as part of the GCC (Gulf Corporate Council) countries that include Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Oman where Oman was a major port of the Indian Ocean slave trade.
Although less common, as part of the Indian ocean slave trade, womxn were also part of royal courts and rose to positions of power, this facet connects to present figuration of East African and South Asian expats in the GCC countries.
-Beydoun, Khaled Ali, Trafficking of Ethiopian Domestic Workers into Lebanon: Navigating Through a Novel Passage of the Intemational Maid Trade. 2014.
- De Regt, Marina 2009 “Preferences and Prejudices: Employers’ Views on Domestic Workers in the Republic of Yemen” Signs Vol. 34 (3): 559-581
- Fernandez, Bina 2010 “Cheap and Disposable? The impact of the global economic crisis on the migration of Ethiopian women domestic workers to the Gulf” Gender and Development Vol. 18 (2): 249-262.
- Campbell, Gwyn, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph Calder Miller. 2007. Women and Slavery: Africa, the Indian Ocean World, and the Medieval North Atlantic. Ohio University Press.
- M.G. Vassanji. The Magic of Saida. Imprint, New York : Alfred A. Knopf, 2013.
- Braude, Joseph. Africans in the Arabian (Persian) Gulf, Afropop, 2007
- Love, David. In Jerusalem, Afro-Palestinians Are the Hardest Hit in the Israeli Occupation, Atlanta Blackstar, 2016
- Mehri, Momtaza. Dispatched from the Black Gulf. The Poetry Review, 2020
- Courtney, Andrew. Guardians of the Mosque: African Palestinians of Jerusalem, 2012
- Atlas Obscura, Bin Jelmood House, Doha, Qatar
- Afropop: HipDeep Podcast. African Slaves in Islamic Lands, 2011
- Hopper M.S. The African Presence in Eastern Arabia. In: Potter L.G. (eds) The Persian Gulf in Modern Times. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2014
- Alshammari, Yousef H.Bint Makkah: Saudi Rapper Controversy Rooted in Racism., Inside Arabia, 2020
- Aljazeera. Mecca Governer Order Arrest of Saudi Female Rapper, 2020
- Alghoul, Diana In honour of Black History Month: the Black-Arab paradigm, October 29, 2016
- Fatima Bernawi, as quoted in Kawar, Amal. Daughters of Palestine, 1996
- Khalifa, Aisha Bilkhair. "African Influences on Culture and Music in Dubai." International
Social Science Journal 58, no. 188 (June 2006): 227-35.
- Lewis, Bernard. Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
- Popovic, Alexandre. The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the 3rd/9th Century. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 1993.
- Ehsaei, Mahdi. Afro-Iran: The Unknown Minority, 2015
- Ajam Media Collective. Blackness of the Iranian Periphery, 2015
- Ajam Media Collective. The Afro-Iranian Community: Beyond Haji Firuz Blackface, the Slave Trade, & Bandari Music, 2012
- Baghoolizadeh, Beeta. Picturing the Other: Race and Afro-Iranians in Documentary Photography. Ajam Media Collective,2015.
- Albinia, Alice. Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River. New York: Norton, 2010.
- Campbell, Gwyn, ed. The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia. London: Frank Cass, 2004.
- Chatterjee, Indrani, and Richard M. Eaton, eds. Slavery and South Asian History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.
- Collins, Robert O. "The African Slave Trade to Asia and the Indian Ocean Islands." African and Asian Studies 5, no. 3-4 (2006): 325-47.
- Harris, Joseph E. The African Presence in Asia: Consequences of the East African Slave Trade. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1971.
- Collins, Robert O. "The African Slave Trade to Asia and the Indian Ocean Islands." African and Asian Studies 5, no. 3-4 (2006): 325-47.
- Jayasuriya, Shihan de Silva. African Identity in Asia: Cultural Effects of Forced Migration. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 2009.
- Jayasuriya, Shihan de Silva, and Jean-Pierre Angenot, eds. Uncovering the History of Africans in Asia. Leiden: Brill, 2008.
- "Conference Report: Goa Conference on the African Diaspora in Asia." African Affairs 105, no. 420 (July 2006): 461-64.
- Obeng, Pashington. Shaping Membership, Defining Nation: The Cultural Politics of African Indians in South Asia. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.
- Prasad, Kiran Kamal, and Jean-Pierre Angenot. 2008. TADIA, the African Diaspora in Asia: Explorations on a Less Known Fact. Jana Jagrati Prakashana on behalf the Tadia Society.
- Rashidi, Runoko, and Ivan Van Sertima, eds. African Presence in Early Asia. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction, 1987.
- Campbell, Gwyn. 2004. Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia. Routledge.
- Jayasuriya, Shihan de Silva. 2009. African Identity in Asia: Cultural Effects of Forced Migration. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers.
- Harris, Joseph E. 1971. The African Presence in Asia: Consequences of the East African Slave Trade. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
- Collins, Robert O. 2006. “The African Slave Trade to Asia and the Indian Ocean Islands.” African and Asian Studies 5 (3-4): 325-47.
The largest Afro-Asian diaspora resides in Balochistan and Sindh.
- Badalkhan, Sabir. "On the Presence of African Musical Culture in Coastal Balochistan." In Journeys and Dwellings: Indian Ocean Themes in South Asia, edited by Helene Basu. Bombay: Longman, 2006.
- Khalique, Amna. 2009. The Peoples of African Descent in Pakistan: Sheedis and Their Role in Sindhi History, 11-40. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag.
- Farhat, Sultana: 2013. “Ethnicity and Healing Rituals in Gwadar, Balochistan, Pakistan.” The Journal of the Middle East and Africa, v4 n2 (May-August 2013), pp. 169-185.
- Diouf, Sylviane Anne.African in India: From Slaves to Generals and Rulers
- Diouf, Sylviane Anne. The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean World Digital Archive.
- Neelima Jeychandran, Neelima. African Heritage in India
- Baptiste, Fitzroy A. "The African Presence in India—I and II." African Quarterly 38, no. 2 (1998): 76-90, 91-126.
- Catlin-Jairazbhoy, Amy, and Edward A. Alpers, eds. Sidis and Scholars: Essays on African Indians. Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press, 2004.
- Hawley, John C., ed. India in Africa, Africa in India: Indian Ocean Cosmopolitanisms. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.
- Jayasuriya, Shihan de Silva, and Richard Pankhurst, eds. The African Diaspora in the IndianOcean. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2003.
- Walker, Timothy. “Slaves or Soldiers? African Conscripts in Portuguese India, 1857-60.” In Slavery and South Asian History, edited by Indrani Chatterjee and Richard M. Eaton, 234-261. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
- Yimene, Ababu Minda. 2004. An African Indian Community in Hyderabad: Siddi Identity, Its Maintenance and Change. Cuvillier Verlag.
- Obeng, J. Pashington. 2007. Shaping Membership, Defining Nation: The Cultural Politics of African Indians in South Asia. Lexington Books.
- Pescatello, Ann M. 1977. “The African Presence in Portuguese India.” Journal of Asian History 11 (1): 26-48.
- Sadiq Ali, Shanti. 1996. The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times, 157-192. New Delhi: Orient Longman.
- Llewellyn-Jones, Rosie. 2011. “The Colonial Response to African Slaves in British India—Two Contrasting Cases.” African and Asian Studies 10 (1): 59-70.
- Catalin-Jairazbhoy, Amy, and Edward A. Alpers (Eds.). 2004. Sidis and Scholars: Essays on African Indians. New Delhi: Rainbow Publishers.
- Hawley, John C. 2008. India in Africa, Africa in India: Indian Ocean Cosmopolitanisms. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
- Jayasuriya, Shihan de Silva, and Richard Pankhurst. eds. 2003. The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
- Diouf, Sylviane. Asia's Africans. 2013.
- Duggleby, Luke. Sidi Project.
- Diouf, Sylviane.Africans in India: Then and Now. 2014.
Afro-India -- military enslavement
- Eaton, Richard M. 2005 “Malik Ambar (1548-1626): The Rise and Fall of Military Slavery.” In A Social History of the Deccan, 1300-1761: Eight Indian Lives. pp 105-128.
- Robbins, Kenneth X., and John McLeod, eds. African Elites in India: Habshi Amarat. Ahmedabad, India: Mapin, 2006.
- Robbins, Kenneth X., and J. McLeod. 2006. African Elites of India/ Habshi Amarat. New Jersey: Grantha.
- Diouf, Sylviane Africans in India: From Slaves to Generals and Rulers. 2013.
- African elites in India : Habshi Amarat Grantha. 2006.
Afro-India -- clothmaking
- Drewal, Henry John. 2013. “Soulful Stitching: Patchwork Quilts by Africans (Siddis) of India.” African Arts. 46: 6–17.
Afro-India -- Spiritual practices
- Basu, Helene. "The Siddi and the Cult of Bava Gor in Gujarat." Journal of the Indian Anthropological Society 28 (1993): 289-300.
- Shroff, Beheroze. 2008. “Spiritual Journeys: Parsis and Sidi Saints.” In Journeys and Dwellings: Indian Ocean Themes in South Asia, edited by Helene Basu, pp. 256-75. New Delhi: Orient Longman. 2013
- Shroff, Beheroze. “‘Goma is Going On’: Sidis of Gujarat.” African Arts 46: 18–25. 2013.
- Shroff, Beheroze. “Muslim Shrines as Boundary Markers of a Cult Region: The Network of Siddi Saints in Western India.” In Pilgrimage: Concepts, Themes, Issues, and Methodology, edited by J. Makhan, 157-72. New Delhi: South Asia Books. 1995.
- Shroff, Beheroze.“Theater of Memory: Performances of Ritual Kinship of the African Diaspora in Sind/Pakistan.” In Culture, Creation, and Procreation in South Asia, ed. A. Rao and M. Boeck, pp-243-70. Oxford: Berghahn. 2000.
- Shroff, Beheroze. “Drumming and Praying: Sidi at the Interface of Spirit Possession and Islam.” In Struggling with History: Islam and Cosmopolitanism in the Indian Ocean World, edited by E Simpson and K. Kresse, 291-323. London: Hurst. 2007.
- Shroff, Beheroze “A Gendered Indian Ocean Site: Mai Mishra, African Spirit Possession and the Sidi Women in Gujarat.” In Journeys and Dwellings: Indian Ocean Themes in South Asia, edited by Helene Basu, 227-56. New Delhi: Orient Longman. 2008.
- Kessel, Ineke Van. "Belanda Hitam: The Indo-African Communities of Java." African and Asian Studies 6, no. 3 (2007): 243-79.